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谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票  

2014-05-30 18:20:04|  分类: 【集邮册】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己               谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己
谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己
 
       作为中国“最亲密的盟友”波尔布特领导的柬埔寨“红色高棉”政权,是否发行过邮票,这一直是许多集邮者不太清楚的问题。在中国集邮界一直有一种说法,认为红色高棉虽然取消货币。废除邮政,但也曾经发行过加盖邮票,支持这一观点的依据是《中华世界邮票目录-亚洲卷》上的记述:

谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己
      我查了一些资料,有一点不同看法,窃以为加盖RPK字样的柬埔寨邮票,并非波尔布特的红色高棉发行的。

 1975年,红色高棉趁着美国在印度支那的撤出之际,控制了柬埔寨全境,红色高棉进城一个月后,在内部公布了各项政策:撤空城市;废除货币;关闭佛教寺院,废除宗教,把僧侣赶下去从事农业劳动;处决所有朗诺政府领导人;在全国建立高级合作社,实行集体食堂制;把所有越南族赶出柬埔寨;等等。

“撤空城市”在红色高棉夺取政权进入主要城市后就迅速推行。当时全部城市人口在三天至一周内被强制遣散出城,武装押送到农村集体农庄。

      以波尔布特为首的红色高棉在红色高棉统治柬埔寨的三年零八个月期间,估计有40万至300万人死于饥荒、劳役、疾病或迫害等非正常原因,是20世纪最为血腥暴力的人为大灾难之一。

     在1975-1979年期间民主柬埔寨一直没有发行过任何邮票。

       1978年12月,越军进攻柬埔寨,并于1979年1月7日攻占金边。越军的入侵后,成立“柬埔寨人民共和国”缩写 RPK 。波尔布特的“红色高棉”实际控制柬埔寨的时间是1975-1979,此后再次成为在丛林里打游击的流寇。虽然在中国和美国的操纵下,“红色高棉”曾保有柬埔寨在联合国的席位,但亲越的“柬埔寨人民共和国”在1979至1993年为柬埔寨大部分领土的实际统治者。
       波尔布特的“红色高棉”在如日中天的1975-1978年都没有发行过邮票,怎么可能到了被越军打得流窜丛林自顾不暇的1979年之后再把反动政府的邮票找出来加盖发行呢?而且此时“红色高棉”已经失去了对金边及其他城市的控制权,完全处于游击状态。

  其实这些加盖RPK 字样的邮票是亲越的“柬埔寨人民共和国”(当时中国称之为韩桑林傀儡政权)发行的邮票,不是波尔布特的红色高棉发行的,RPK 是法文 Republique Populaire Kampuchea “柬埔寨人民共和国”的缩写。
    米歇尔邮票目录有关的描述为:

 
谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己
      德文的大意为,”这种邮票是柬埔寨人民共和国在金边邮政总局使用的。如果原票铭记是高棉共和国,那么原票的铭记也被黑线划掉。“ 
谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

     由于某种原因中国媒体对于柬埔寨上个世纪70-90年代的历史往往闪烁其词鲜有全面客观的介绍,大多数人知之甚少。只知其一不知其二,看字面“柬埔寨人民共和国”以为共产党控制的柬埔寨政权就一定是红色高棉,其实这个共产党政权不是中国支持的波尔布特“红色高棉”而是越南扶持的“柬埔寨人民共和国”所以《中华世界邮票目录》的编著者才犯了这个低级错误,而许多人又跟着以讹传讹。

附录:加盖RPK 字样邮票 详情
谈谈所谓的民主柬埔寨邮票 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

Cambodia’s ‘RPK’ Overprints of 1979-80

by Graham Shaw
What do you do if your society has just emerged from more than three years of genocide and you are trying to reestablish a functioning administration, including a postal service? This was the issue facing those staff of the forerunner of today’s Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPTC) in Cambodia who survived the murderous Khmer Rouge regime of 1975 to late-1978.
Human, material and financial resources were extremely scarce for several years after the fall of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. It was only in April 1980 that postage stamps of the new régime were made available for public use in what was then called the People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK), or ‘Republique Populaire Kampuchea’ – RPK – to use its French-language acronym.
The staff of the forerunner to the modern day MPTC had to find a way of operating a postal service between the fall of the Khmer Rouge in December 1978 and the commencement of formal RPK stamp issues in April 1980 and, consequently, decided to use the stamps of previous regimes that were available and to overprint them manually with ‘RPK’, as shown in the following examples:
The stamps shown above are the only known examples of a set issued on December 11, 1971 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of UNICEF (Scott 269-270; SG 309-310; Mi 312-313) with the manual handstamp of ‘RPK’ added and the double black line cancelling ‘Republique Khmere’ on each of the stamps.
Such an approach would have saved time and resources whilst also allowing postal activities to take place and, from a more political perspective, affirm the commencement of the new régime that had considerable backing from Vietnam and some other Soviet-backed countries, including the USSR.
At least one senior official of the modern-day MPTC who was working at the central post office immediately after the fall of the Khmer Rouge régime has confirmed that the RPK overprint was used for postal communications within Cambodia and for items sent abroad. However, as many collectors know, there are virtually no examples of such items of mail in existence.
The Stanley Gibbons (SG) catalogue states the following with regards to such overprints:
“Various stamps of the previous regimes exist overprinted “RPK”. These were sold in Phnom Penh, mainly on covers cancelled with datestamps between 15 August 1979 and 22 June 1981. It is believed they were not available for postal use” (Source: Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue, Part 21, South-East Asia, 4th Edition, p54).
From personal e-mail communications with SG, it is apparent that they are simply following the entry made by the Michel catalogue that provides much more text on this period in contemporary Cambodian postal history.
However, Michel provides more guidance to the collector as to which stamps of previous Cambodian régimes are known to have had the RPK overprinted added (Source: Michel, South and Southeast Asia, 2003, p564). The following is a list of known RPK overprints based on Michel plus others that I have identified to-date.
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