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一壶清茶 三五知己

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耶路撒冷的考古遗址  

2014-01-03 11:02:44|  分类: 【集邮册】 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

第二圣殿时期的罗宾逊拱门 (约 公元前1世纪) 

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己 
第二圣殿时期圣殿阶梯 (约 公元前1世纪) 

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

 
耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

第一圣殿时期的城墙遗址 (约公元前7世纪)


耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

 阿拉伯统治时期德奥玛雅德宫遗址(约公元8世纪)

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己
 
拜占庭时期的建筑遗址 (公元6世纪)


耶路撒冷的考古遗址 - 谷雨 - 一壶清茶 三五知己

        

      耶路撒冷古城遗址是巴勒斯坦著名历史名城。犹太教、基督教和伊斯兰教共同的圣地。位于地中海东岸的犹地亚山区之巅。联合国教科文组织已将该城列为世界文化遗产之一。


       1968年起,希伯莱大学、以色列考古学会等在旧城区进行了考古发掘。

       公元前 18 世纪,杰布西特人在附近的奥菲尔建城,并筑有坚固的城堡。城墙系用未经整修的石块垒砌。约公元前 996年,以色列国王大卫攻占耶路撒冷,并定都于此。其子所罗门王完成大卫时开始营建的宫殿和神庙,扩建了城市,并在锡安山上建造犹太教圣殿,奠定了作为宗教中心的神圣地位。公元前 587年,新巴比伦国王尼布甲尼撒二世攻陷此城,夷为平地,并焚毁圣殿。公元前 515年重建。公元前 4世纪后,先后附属于马其顿、托勒密、塞琉古诸王国。公元前63年为罗马人占领。公元 7世纪起,该城长期处于阿拉伯人统治之下。耶路撒冷现存的旧城城墙为16世纪土耳其苏丹苏莱曼时代重建的,城墙周长约 5公里。城内有犹太教圣殿西墙、基督教圣墓教堂和伊斯兰教圣岩清真寺等。圣殿西墙,犹太人又称“哭墙”,约建于公元前 1世纪末,原为圣殿院落西墙的一段。圣殿约毁于公元70年和公元 135年,后又在遗址上修建起围墙,成为犹太教圣迹之一。圣墓教堂建于 335年,为古罗马皇帝君士坦丁一世的母亲海伦娜太后在耶稣墓地所建,是基督教的圣地之一。圣岩清真寺因传说穆罕默德登天脚踩圣石而得名,为伊斯兰教圣地。


      1976年以色列发行的这套《耶路撒冷的考古遗址》邮票,在邮票的主图上展示了不同历史时期的建筑遗址发掘现场,同时为了不忽略细节,每一枚邮票下的纸边突出表现了一件代表性文物。 

Archaeology in Jerusalem

Since 1968 large-scale archaeological digs in which large numbers of volunteers from all over the world have participated, have been carried out continuously in Old Jerusalem. These digs have given a great impetus to research on the history of Jerusalem and the additional knowledge acquired during these past eight years has exceeded the accumulated knowledge of more than a century of research. These digs have thrown light on many aspects of ancient Jerusalem and have even enabled us to reconstruct complete periods of the city's history.

This set of five stamps cannot cover all the recent discoveries, but in it an attempt has been made to indicate a number of the major finds.

Archaeological finds fall into two main categories: (a) architecture - city walls, buildings, steps, sections of streets, etc. and (b) objects - tools and implements in daily use, coins, jewelry and other ornaments, etc. The Jerusalem digs have uncovered primarily architectural features, but the number of individual objects found has also been considerable and among them are many which any museum would be proud to own.

The subjects of these stamps have been chosen to illustrate the architectural discoveries relating to different historical periods, but in order not to ignore the smaller objects, the tabs of each stamp have been utilized to portray objects relating to the specific site shown on the stamp.

The stamps show us the sites in their natural state, as uncovered in the course of their excavation. i.e. as ruins or in their archaeological state, while the corresponding First Day envelope depicts a reconstruction of the site in its original state.

THE CITY WALLS - 800-700 BCE

On the western hill, in the area of the Jewish Quarter, a wall of astonishing thickness was uncovered. This wall dates back to the period of the Kingdom of Judah and the end of the First Temple - the reign of King Hezkiyahu (end of the 8th century BCE). This find enables us, for the first time, to set the limits of the city of Jerusalem in the period of the First Temple and gives us an indication of the strength of its fortifications which finally fell to Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, in 586 BCE. The tab depicts a scarab bearing the likeness of a griffin - an excellent example of the style current in the Kingdom of Judah in the 8th century BCE, while the envelope shows a reconstruction of the city walls based on the new, discoveries.

"ROBINSON'S ARCH"

It is more than 150 years since the well-known American scholar Edward Robinson discovered the remains of this arch. Until now, it had been believed that this arch was one of seven massive arches that formed a bridge between the Upper City and the Temple area in the period of the Second Temple. From an examination of the arch itself and from a study of the adjacent excavations, we now learn that the arch was, in fact, the last link in a system that led up from the main street at the foot of the Temple Mount to the Grand Hall at the south of the Mount, as described by the Jewish historian, Josephus ben Matityahu. This arch was the largest of its kind in classical times and nothing comparable was to be found throughout the whole Roman Empire.

The tab depicts a gem bearing a bowl with fruit and cornucopias from the period of Herod, while the envelope shows a reconstruction of the arch in the light of these recent excavations.

THE STEPS LEADING TO THE GATES OF HULDA

The principal entrance to the Temple Mount was from the south face, and the south wall incorporated the Gates of Hulda which served as the main gates in the time of the Second Temple. The recent digs succeeded in uncovering the steps leading to the western gate of Hulda. They are no less than 65 meters in width and bear witness to the tens of thousands of pilgrims who flocked to the Temple at Festival time. This find has helped clarify the route taken by these pilgrims on their way from the city's main streets and squares facing the Temple Mount, up to the Temple courtyards. Here too, the very size of the steps leading to the altar distinguishes them as one of the largest of their kind known to exist at the commencement of the Common Era.

The tab shows a clay bowl typical of those used in Jerusalem in the time of the Second Temple. This delicate bowl, with its highly artistic floral decorations, is a fine example of the clay utensils which were specific to Jerusalem in Second Temple times.

The envelope shows a reconstruction of the south face of the Temple Mount with its gates and steps, and the streets found at its foot.

BYZANTINE STRUCTURE (6TH-7TH CENTURIES CE)

In the 6th and 7th centuries there was a residential area at the foot of the Temple Mount and recent excavations have uncovered a number of fine villa-type dwellings. These were each of 2-1/2 stories and consisted of a central courtyard surrounded by rooms. Many of the rooms were decorated with mosaic tiles and contained provisions for draining off the water and storing it in wells.

Numerous everyday utensils - some of clay and others of bronze - were unearthed in these houses. During the reign of the Christian-Byzantine emperors, buildings, both public and private, flourished in Jerusalem and this residential area uncovered at the foot of the Temple Mount illustrates the high standards of planning and execution associated with the construction of residential areas at that period.

The stamp illustrates one of the houses uncovered in the course of the excavations. The tab shows the arm of a bronze lamp found in this very villa, while the envelope shows a reconstruction of the villa itself.

THE CORNER OF A ROOM IN A PALACE FROM THE PERIOD OF THE OMAYYAD CALIPHS

One of the most exciting and important of recent archaeological finds was the uncovering of a number of royal buildings including a Palace built at the foot of the Mount at the beginning of the Islamic era (beginning of the 8th century). The Moslems consider Jerusalem to be a holy city, and it was there that they built the El Aksa mosque and Dome of the Rock at the end of the 7th and beginning of the 8th centuries, during the rule of the Omayyad dynasty whose center was in Damascus.

The historical records tell us very little of the activities of this dynasty, particularly insofar as Jerusalem is concerned. The recent digs have provided us with evidence that they built not only on the Temple Mount, but that they also erected a grandiose public building outside the area. This discovery provides us, therefore, with knowledge of yet another stage in Jerusalem's long history.

The stamp depicts the corner of a room containing a pillar from the ground floor of the Caliph's Palace in Jerusalem.

The tab illustrates part of a painted plaster wall in the Omayyad Palace, while the envelope portrays a reconstruction of the Palace and shows where it stood in relation to the Temple Mount.

The subjects chosen for illustration on the stamps and tabs were suggested by Meir Ben-Dov, a member of the archaeological team working in the Temple Mount area.

The stamps are based on photographs taken by Avinoam Glick.

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